From IEEE Spectrum:
It turns out to be the first integrated circularly polarized light detector on a silicon chip. Its development could usher in a new generation of portable sensors that can use polarized light for applications ranging from drug screening to quantum computing.
This is a heavy scientific article that you may or may not want to plow through. The bottom line is another advancement in detection which will eventually be used to allow us to see things, perhaps an oral lesion, that we can not see with our unaided eyes. Another step closer to a Tricorder.